SPPAS Tutorial

(C) Brigitte Bigi - Laboratoire Parole et Langage - France

Phonemes and words segmentation

Definition

Data preparation

Data preparation: example

An IPU of "Corpus of Interactional Data"
An IPU of "Corpus of Interactional Data"

Expected result

Phonemes and words segmentation: my approach

  1. text normalization
  2. phonetization (grapheme to phoneme conversion)
  3. alignment (speech segmentation)

All three tasks are fully-automatic, but each annotation output can be manually checked if desired.

Text Normalization

Text Normalization: my approach

Text Normalization main steps

  1. Split:
    • use whitespace or characters to split the utterance into separated strings
  2. Replace symbols by their written form:
    • based on a lexicon
      • ° is replaced by degrees (English), degrés (French), grados (Spanish), gradi (Italian), mức độ (Vietnamese), 度 (Chinese), du (Chinese pinyin and Taiwanese)
      • ² is replaced by square (English), carré (French), quadrados (Spanish), quadrato (Italian), bình phương (Vietnamese), 平方 (Chinese), ping fang (Chinese pinyin)

Text Normalization main steps (continued)

  1. Segment into words:
    • fixes a set of rules to segment strings including punctuation marks
    • based on a lexicon and rules
      • aujourd'hui, c'est-à-dire
      • porte-monnaie, cet homme-là, voulez-vous
      • poudre d'escampette, trompe-l'oeil, rock'n roll

Text Normalization main steps

  1. Stick, i.e. concatenate strings into words
    • based on a dictionary with an optimization criteria: a longest matching
      • English: once_upon_a_time, game_over
      • French: pomme_de_terre, au_fur_et_à_mesure, tel_que
      • Chinese: 登记簿
  2. Convert numbers to their written form
    • 123
      • cent-vingt-trois (French), one-hundred-twenty-three (English), ciento-veintitres (Spanish)
  3. Lower the text
  4. Remove punctuation

Text Normalization of speech transcription

Text Normalization of speech transcription: example

Text Normalization: current languages

The better lexicon, the better automatic text normalization.

Text Normalization: Adding a new language

  1. add lexicons
  2. add the num2letter module

Example:

Roxana Fung, Brigitte Bigi (2015).
Automatic word segmentation for spoken Cantonese.
In Oriental COCOSDA and Conference on Asian Spoken Language Research and Evaluation,
pp. 196–201.

Text Normalization: reference

Brigitte Bigi (2014). 
A Multilingual Text Normalization Approach. 
Human Language Technologies Challenges for Computer Science and Linguistics. 
LNAI 8387, Springer, Heidelberg. ISBN: 978-3-319-14120-6. Pages 515-526.

Phonetization

Converting from written text into actual sounds, for any language, cause several problems that have their origins in the relative lack of correspondence between the spelling of the lexical items and their sound contents.

Phonetization: my approach

Phonetization: dictionary

Phonetization of normalized speech transcription

Phonetization: example

Phonetization: current languages

The better dictionary, the better automatic phonetization.

Phonetization: reference

Brigitte Bigi (2016).
A phonetization approach for the forced-alignment task in SPPAS.
Human Language Technologies Challenges for Computer Science and Linguistics. 
LNAI 9561, Springer, Heidelberg. 

Alignment

Alignment

Alignment: current languages

Alignment: results of French

UBPA of French on read and spontaneous speech
UBPA of French on read and spontaneous speech
Manual vs automatic durations of vowels on conversational speech
Manual vs automatic durations of vowels on conversational speech

Alignment: references

Brigitte Bigi (2012). 
The SPPAS participation to the Forced-Alignment task of Evalita 2011. 
B. Magnini et al. (Eds.): EVALITA 2012, LNAI 7689, pp. 312-321. Springer, Heidelberg.

Brigitte Bigi (2014).
The SPPAS participation to Evalita 2014.
In Proceedings of the First Italian Conference on Computational Linguistics CLiC-it 2014 
and the Fourth International Workshop EVALITA 2014, Pisa, Italy.

Brigitte Bigi (2014).
Automatic Speech Segmentation of French: Corpus Adaptation.
In 2nd Asian Pacific Corpus Linguistics Conference, pp. 32, Hong Kong.

Speech segmentation: main reference

Brigitte Bigi, Christine Meunier (2018). 
Automatic speech segmentation of spontaneous speech. 
Revista de Estudos da Linguagem. 
International Thematic Issue: Speech Segmentation. 
Editors: Tommaso Raso, Heliana Mello, Plinio Barbosa, 
e - ISSN 2237-2083

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